Microscopy methods that reveal the spatial patterns of individual types of microbe are limited by the number of different species that can be monitored together. A new technique now provides progress on this front.

Background: Vaccination remains one of the most effective means of reducing the burden of infectious diseases globally. Improving our understanding of the molecular basis for effective vaccine response is of paramount importance if we are to ensure the success of future vaccine development efforts.


  • Innate immune and stool microbiome signatures of HEU children are region specific.

  • Differences in HEU immune responses were unrelated to the microbiome.

  • Future immune studies of HEU children must be studied across diverse settings.